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    工筆花鳥藝術的精神投映與意境生成—樊萍

    發布時間: 2018-05-03 16:44:16   作者:   來源: 市文聯

         工筆花鳥藝術在漫長的歷史進程中孕育出紛繁多彩的風貌,而傳統文化始終是推動這一畫種不斷向前發展的內在源流,工筆花鳥特有的嚴謹工整、細膩清和更是作為一種人文情結深埋于民族的血脈中。藝術與文化的自覺性創造性地發展著工筆花鳥這一古老畫種,并在延續中不斷填充進時代的內容。每當欣賞起歷朝名家的經典之作時,也無不擔憂和困惑著我們當今工筆花鳥畫自身的處境,在繽紛多樣的創新作品中,筆法薄弱,內容空乏,只是在形式感上創新,而文化內涵卻在流失。我們應當在工筆繪畫中重視本民族文化的特質,展現工筆花鳥的藝術精神,只有這樣,才能創作出充滿時代召喚、和內在感染力的作品。

           中國繪畫講求超脫的視野,虛靈的境界,追尋人與自然的完美融合,這既是畫理,亦是道。因而在文化哲學的層面上體現出人對自然的感悟:內斂、平和、沉靜,這是一種頗具古代智慧的文化品悟,它運用到繪畫實踐中便對應生成了畫面三種富有層次的文化氣質:含蓄、自然、淡泊。而工筆繪畫的經典要義即是在此。我在長期的工筆花鳥探索中探尋到這一文化脈絡,并十分貼切地運用到我的作品中。四條屏《芳春》、《艷夏》、《麗秋》、《清冬》作品遵循自然法則以及物象形態的客觀規律,注重把對“物我合一”的深度領會帶到畫面中:一、在具象狀物時很好地把握了鴿子、太湖石與花卉的透視與比例關系,做到惟妙惟肖,妙趣橫生,傳達一份含蓄、不事張揚的淡然之美,在文化意象上呈現出內斂婉約的氣質;二、以自然為切入點,在創作中盡量以自然之貌現自然之情。做到“天然去雕飾”,在文化個性上“卓爾不群、和而不同”;三、主客體的交融碰撞中,主觀化的情感介入賦予客體活的靈魂,并伴隨著我希冀能夠達成的那種境界,釋放出寄予胸中的情懷,淡泊是一種超乎象外、從容達觀的釋然,是一種對客體塑造藝術化呈現的文化凝練。當把含蓄、自然、淡泊作為文化訴求一一展現時,它便具有了文化精神的考量,從而在畫面中投射出來。

            當作品有了強有力的文化表述時,才能將工筆花鳥畫創作提到一個更高的層面,形成作品的文化主題,才能在縝密的文脈中展現作品的敘事性。真正做到“形散神不散,形聚意更凝”。我在工筆花鳥畫創作中一直研究線條、色彩與留白之間的呼應關系,如果畫面清疏簡約,神韻也不松散拖沓;如果畫面繁密緊湊,意態則更為凸顯集中。在四條屏作品《版納風情》中,我以詩入畫,尋找文化主題與畫面語境的一致性。特別是在《版納風情之二》中,畫面煙嵐縈繞,鴿群在奇石上覓得愜意,一派盎然生機。我以兩句詩文“春風浮掠曉煙嵐,鴿語簇香透石開”將自我從世俗雜念中脫離,帶入“物我兩相忘”的至空之境。

             也可以這樣說,在工筆花鳥畫創作中,文化的存在亦是一種心靈參悟、積淀后的呈現,是心靈在藝術中體現出的精神活動與文化軌跡。所以,除了那份直面繪畫時的“用心”外,我們還應注重在藝術實踐反映文化內涵時的心靈的“在場”,心靈對客體自然從外在篩選到內在延展整合的深度推敲,這有助于達成文化寓意在繪畫層面的心靈體驗,所以心靈的參與為藝術與文化兩種要素實現了雙向的、可塑性的互動選擇,藝術風格可以影響文化走向,文化的多元性又決定了繪畫風格與審美趣味的不同。比如古詩詞中的“婉約派”在畫面中容易形成柔美、朦朧的氛圍基調;而“豪放派”則易形成奔宕激越的主題情境。所以說,心靈像是一面鏡子,照亮了相互變動、調整補充中的藝術與文化的關系,并且使得二者呈現出藝術形式與思想內涵的高度統一。可以說,心靈的“在場”是十分重要的,沒有心靈的參與,就無法實現藝術與文化去粗取精、去偽存真后的高度經典,只有用心演繹,文化詮釋,創作出的作品才能動人心弦。

        當作品有了一定的文化意味時,它便彰顯出精神的內核,簡而言之,文化的核心即是精神。有了文化哲思闡述的工筆花鳥作品才是有精神面貌的,有姿態、有風骨、有意蘊的、也是經得住推敲的。在我看來,工筆花鳥見之于文化內因的精神投映體現在兩個方面:一、個性訴求的純粹表達;二、詩性氣質的自由貫通。在我近期創作的黑、白、灰工筆花鳥作品中,我以灰黑色系的視覺語言表達個性化的藝術主張,我用線條的穿插交錯對花卉、鳥雀進行布局,用純粹的水墨關系表現我心中多姿多彩的南國雨林,以巨大的視覺反差形成意蘊上的不同,更易凸顯我的文化解讀,而詩性特質一直是我所追求的。在畫面中,如詩如畫的演繹神采,呈現出一個地域風情與鄉愁相互疊合的動態美感,那種彌漫其中的抒情式的詠嘆,似乎是壓著情緒的節點慢慢推開,這個錯落有致的圖景中暗合著古典詩的婉約靈動,自由升騰,把那種詩性的“思”漸漸提煉為作品的韻味與格調,這就使得這批版納寫生作品與眾不同,形成了從寫生狀態到文化呈示的精神投映。

        某種意義來說,文化與精神的相互關聯構成了工筆花鳥的靈魂框架,使得作品不再停留于虛浮的表面,在思想主旨上有了歸屬感與指向性。而最關乎作品成敗的意境生成也無疑包含在文化與精神的烙印中。

        所以我在長年的工筆創作中總結出定式思維和逆向思維的繪畫理念服務于意境表達。定式思維是指用普遍的工筆技法由形入神、由外而內的刻畫;而逆向思維則是在作畫前根據自己的體驗和情境想象由內而外的構思文化主題,尋覓精神立意。這樣在作畫時兩種方式同時開啟,每一筆都是扎實有力的,也是滲透著文化韻味的,從而在整體構建中貫通氣息內蘊,注入生機和活力。

        正如蘇東坡所云:“大凡為文,當使氣象崢嶸,五色絢爛,漸老漸熟,乃造平淡”。我的工筆花鳥畫創作多是濃郁繁茂的藝術風格,展現多姿多彩的自然生機和蓬勃向上的生命力。其實,透過藝術演繹我所追求的不僅是繁華與絢爛的外部氣象,而是歸于本真的質樸,是一種“質樸——繁華——質樸”的終極追求。所以,那種繁華到極致的意蘊中必然隱藏著趨向天真的自然。是一種到達至高悟化后寓意平凡的不平凡之意。只有把心中的“凈”與自然的“境”融匯貫通,才能達到這濃麗至極的平淡,雕琢至極的自然。

        意境是形成文化內韻的關鍵所在,它在文化的多義性、隱匿性以及抒情、比喻、擬人的各種文學修辭中不斷滲化,因而,是文化賦予了意境生命般的滋養,而意境也以它的朦朧婉約,或清朗雋意不斷展現出工筆花鳥所蘊含的文化張力。意境的格調倘若離開了文化支撐,就無法在心靈的直視中沉淀出我們的思想,也就無法用繪畫的視角傳達出作為個體參與的人文情懷。

        我在幾十年的工筆花鳥畫研究中,看到了工筆花鳥這條藝術之路的艱辛。對于每一個有責任感的藝術者而言,怎樣的擔當,怎樣的文化覺醒都決定了我們呈現給觀者什么樣的作品。我的繪畫宗旨是以文化為支點,感悟生活,直面心靈,彰顯精神,挖掘意境,在自然狀物中返璞歸真,在從容創作時探尋淡泊之境。這也促成了我的工筆花鳥畫作品在形式語言與內涵層面上達成了很好的融合,體現出文化關切與風土人情的內在碰撞與持續共鳴。


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